The model we use in design of the Global Mind Monitor is inspired by the OECD model of Global Competence (2018). In this model, Global Competence is conceptualized as the capacity to examine local, global and intercultural issues, to understand and appreciate the perspectives and worldviews of others, to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with people from different cultures, and to act for collective well-being and sustainable development.
The GMM is a tool to measure global competence used by study programs with high-quality international learning outcomes. It can be utilized by students, lecturers and professionals. The monitor is based on PhD research. The Global Minds @ Work research centre at Zuyd University of Applied Sciences is conducting a longitudinal scientific study on (the development of) global competence. The GMM was developed and optimized by Zuyd together with Etil. The intercultural competence and ethnocentrism scales are based on research, among others by Van Oudenhoven & Van der Zee (2000, Multicultural Personality), Ang & Van Dyne (2007, Cultural Intelligence) and Neuliep & McCrosky (2013, Ethnocentrism).
Our model consists of four dimensions (my knowledge, my action, my person and my drive). The measures we use in these dimensions are all based on scientifically validated scales, mainly from sociopsychological research. Please read more about the measures and the scientific validation of the tool below.
Willingness to cross borders
In this first dimension, we combine a number of validated scales that tap into a students’ self-assessment of their knowledge and skills.
The measures for cultural knowledge and cultural self-knowledge are based on the first two factors of the four-factor Cultural Intelligence (CQ) model by Ang & Van Dyne (2007). Cultural knowledge – or cognitive CQ – is a scale that measures one’s understanding of the rules, cultural values, religious beliefs etc. of other cultures. Cultural self-knowledge – or metacognitive CQ – taps into one’s consciousness of cultural knowledge people use when interacting with people of different cultural backgrounds.
In the language skills scales, we measure which foreign languages a user speaks (besides their native languages), and to what extent they use the language in different settings.
The measures for pro-sustainability thoughts and sustainability-hindering thoughts are based on the Engagement/Disengagement in Sustainable Development Inventory (EDiSDI) by Moreira, Ramalho & Inman (2020). They express the positive and negative thoughts that users might have about their ability to influence sustainable development.
In this second dimension, we combine a number of validated scales that measure motivation regarding different topics. The measure for cultural motivation is also based on Ang & Van Dyne’s CQ model (Motivational CQ). This scale measures to what extent people enjoy intercultural interactions and feel confident in these encounters.
In the willingness to cross borders, students can indicate to what extent they are willing to commute across the borders, to move abroad for their career or to stay in their current region.
The measures for pro-sustainability feelings and sustainability-hindering feelings are also based on the EDiSDI (Moreira et al., 2020). They express to what extent one feels concerned and interested to protect the planet, and whether someone feels global sustainability can be boring, annoying or frustrating.
The measures included in the third dimension focus on international experiences and intercultural behavior. The measure for cultural behavior is based on Ang & Van Dyne’s CQ model (Behavioral CQ). This scale measures to what extent people adjust their (nonverbal) behavior when necessary during intercultural encounters. Next, we included measures on international experience (for educational or personal purposes) and participation in internationalization at home activities in an educational setting.
The measures for pro-sustainability actions and sustainability-hindering actions are based on the EDiSDI (Moreira et al., 2020). They express to what extent someone actively changes their behavior to protect the environment, and to what extent someone believes that their behavior can(not) affect the environment or the planet.
This validated questionnaire measures the levels of cultural empathy, open mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability and flexibility of a student.
Finally, the “my person” dimension also includes a measure on ethnocentrism. For this, we use Neuliep & McCroskey’s (2013) generalized ethnocentrism scale.